Alice speaks about her experience of this in school. We couldn’t even bring home a pencil that wasn't ours, if Mummy ever see that pencil, you have to get a beating and you have to carry it back.” (3) 8: 351-358. The use of corporal punishment (CP) as a form of discipline is common in the Caribbean region, especially in Jamaica and the support for its use for prevention, correction and punishment of unwanted behaviour is widespread (Joseph, 2002). The second subordinate theme that emerges under cultural norms is deservedness, most Jamaicans believe that children deserve to be beaten for rude behaviour. “my slaps are [ demonstrating on her own hand, slap slap slap slap ] you know, its like they don’t even cry [ audible slap, slap, slap ] because I don't lick them for them to cry,” (3) 10:430-433. The third theme , 'still needing to rely on fear', emerged from the confusion caused by changing ideas from experience but there being no change in cultural norms to support that change from the Ministry of Education or parents, causing the teachers to still need to rely on CP for control in the classroom. Teachers are always expected to act a certain way, that parents and students often forget that they are human too. - Every paper finds readers. (5) 5:233-238. When the Jamaican society is conditioned to believe that disobedience and rudeness deserve physical punishment these cultural norms deeply influence perception on what is acceptable globally. ADDitude Magazine. (Garrett, 2008). loudly] You don’t abuse them by over the back, you understand? - It only takes five minutes They should be their parents' burden and not those of the teachers. Change of ideology brings perception of control Failed by the Ministry of Education. 5 participants were eligible to take part in this study the cohort was of mixed gender, age and length of experience as a teacher, some demographic questions were answered on the consent form and a table of the participants is shown in Table 1. “sometimes you would feel like you want to use it but you have to be under control, you are the teacher so, you know what's right and what's wrong you have to be the professional and then you have to consider, ok then if I go too far between the thin line of discipline and abuse then who would be left behind bars? Rather than the speaker checking to see whether what they said was understood by the listener. diagnosable disruptive behavior disorders: attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Acceptable classroom behavior should be reinforced by making consequences closer to those of real life. Classroom makeover. To further understand the differences in cultural norms pertaining to Jamaica, a 2010 survey of 1,000 Jamaican adults, carried out by a Market Research Company revealed more than half (51.8%) did not agree that acts such as pinching, hitting the head, biting, kicking and thumping a child, constituted CP. A student who intentionally creates a disturbance in class that directly interferes with the teacher's ability to instruct the class and with other students' ability to learn is considered disruptive. Parents, then, would be forced to deal with the situation themselves, as teachers are not surrogate parents. The strength of these cultural norms have conditioned 'typical' children to feel that without being beating, they are unable to behave themselves or are able to behave badly, which supports research that found the more custodial the teacher the less self-regulation is demonstrated by the students (Hall, Hall, & Abaci, 1997). The classrooms where disruptive behavior occurs frequently gets less academic engaged time, and the students in disruptive classrooms stand in low category in achievement tests. Dex used the 'you understand?' Jamaica is also known to be extremely theologically motivated where the bible is used for moral compass and obedience is highly valued with punitive, physical measures used to manage rude and disobedient behaviour (Baumrind, 1966). Rev. However a crying child is not a reliable method for measuring pain tolerance, especially when crying is presented for many reasons, other than physical pain alone and some children will remain stoic whist suffering immense pain. Much of the previous research in these areas is quantitative and focuses on percentages, comparisons and statistics, and often focuses on the children. So they're used to that and that is they're way of punishment so what can a teacher do she try to break them out of that thinking that when they go home they still get the same punishment so it is very difficult” (2) 8:368-373. Dex provided his definition of punishment versus abuse when he described the forms of physical punishment he would like to be able to use or had used. The conference theme was 'Managing Classroom Behaviour: 21st Century Challenges, Approaches and Solutions.' “ Disruptive Behavior: Solutions for the Classroom and at Home. Annita explains why, when she hits children, she does not consider it to be abuse, similar to Dex in terms of slapping or 'licking' a child's hand , which they seem to both find acceptable. Research has determined that the teacher, as the classroom manager has been identified as the most critical factor in the success of a student and the variable which has the most significant impact on student learning is classroom management (Hargrove, 2008). Abstract Introduction Method Analysis Cultural Norms – Clouding Judgement And Influencing Opinion Deservedness Experience As A Teacher – Teaches A More Child-Centred Approach Change of ideology brings perception of control Respect is better, Fear is restrictive The Need To Still Rely Of Fear As A Tool For Control. Explain any consequences of continued disruptions. “ To me, these parents, as I said have poor parenting that's why the children are behaving like this now because they know that Mummy is going to give me right over Miss even though when I'm wrong Mummy is going to give me right and that what's causing the trouble. Try to get agreement on expected norms. “ Well you use the strap to slap [ audible hard slapping as Dex demonstrates the strap slapping his hand ] Yes.. its not that you are going to abuse them you straight up the hand [demonstrates opening his palm and slaps it. Experience As A Teacher – Teaches A More Child-Centred Approach Student Disruptive Behavior in the Classroom 4 Environmental factors which can influence a student’s misbehavior include norm of conduct, class size, culture and task. CP is discouraged by the Ministry of Education, it is prohibited in early childhood settings, but is not illegal in Jamaican schools, it is also found to be endorsed by Jamaican society, in a newspaper poll in 2006, 60% of respondents were in favour of hitting and caning in schools (Jamaica Gleaner online, 2006). British Journal of Sociology of Education: Vol. Researchers note that the most effective way to minimize disruptive behavior in the classroom is to prevent its initial occurrence through effective classroom management, principally organization and communication. All interviews were audio-recorded and subsequently transcribed verbatim. I am not going to, don’t flog my child, if my child is rude, you can flog her but you must know how to flog her, how to slap her, you understand? Norm of conduct deals with what the students are accustomed to or what they consider “disruptive” versus “not disruptive”. If neither works, isolate the child in a peer teacher classroom with some work to do. - Completely free - with ISBN “ 5 Tips for Handling EBD Kids (Emotional Behavior Disorder) in an Inclusive Classroom.” … Ask the person to recommend a solution. The research made use of three data collection tools to gather data over a period of eight weeks. It is through understanding the experiences, the perceptions and the beliefs of teachers that one can guide, enable, and empower them to become more effective. The second theme was 'experience as a teacher', which challenged the cultural norms they had been exposed too and changed ideas about the use of fear and respect. (Hamilton, 2010). So, it was important to use interpretative phenomenological analysis to explore the teachers experience of control in the classroom, not the students or the policy makers. “the same teachers they abuse the kids, I mean, they beat them, so when you have a student coming to your class all they are expecting is for you to beat them and when they realise you not beating them them start to being disrespectful” (2)6:281-285, - Publication as eBook and book Kelli discusses how easy it is to lose control when using CP and that can lead to abuse, she admits how fine the line between CP and abuse can be. 12 semi-structured base questions were used in each interview. It seems that rude children whether they have a valid reason for their unwanted behaviour deserve to be beaten or abused. - High royalties for the sales ” August/ September 2004. Some disruptive behavior may be a result of the student's disability (e.g., emotional/behavioral disorders). A member of the RJRGLEANER Communications Group. When it comes to physical punishment there is never a consensus on what is acceptable and what is deemed abuse, especially when considering varying cultural norms across the globe. The genesis of the problem is indiscipline. Disruptive behavior in the secondary schools in Pakistan, particularly in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa has become a great problem. You understand? In light of these findings, this study hopes to provide insight for education policy makers to provide effective classroom management modules at Teacher Training College, introduction of school intervention programmes, parenting programmes and to better support its teachers to eliminate the use of CP across Jamaica, not just in schools alone. Recommendations for faculty include the following: Furthermore, attempts to control disruptive behaviors cost considerable teachers’ time at the exp… Results showed that the most common and disruptive problem behavior was talking out of turn, followed by nonattentiveness, daydreaming, and idleness. Disruptive behavior can have negative effects on not only the classroom environment, but also on … This means that they demand unquestioned obedience, compliance and respect for adults, from all children at all times. Disruptive behaviour is experienced by 47% of teachers on at least a weekly basis (Department for Education).Even more concerning, is the fact that four in 10 teachers have been ‘attacked by students’ ().What’s more, the impact of low-level disruption is woefully overlooked and underappreciated. Disruptive behavior in schools has been a source of concern for school systems for several years. Kelli also provides a teachers perspective on taking CP too far, usually when the issue of CP versus abuse arises, the main focus of concern is on the receiver. Behaviour management tip 10 . Brad, Compton, CA. A. Deservedness Western culture may take issue with the use of a object to hit a child using CP but Dex indicates that he is influenced strongly by his Jamaican cultural norms, pointing out that the location of the slap across the back is deemed abusive not the use of a strap. 23, No. This subordinate theme addresses how cultural norms can blur the lines between CP and abuse. phrase twice, as the interviewer has to remain impartial, it seems without an agreeable listener, perhaps his cultural norm was clouding his judgement and making him unsure, so he needed to check at the end of each statement that what he was saying was still acceptable to his non-Jamaican audience.. Dex also highlights how hard this cultural norm must be for children with special needs, who are often unable to regulate their behaviour and arguably do not deserve physical punishment . 107-122. Making Teachers Accountable for Students' Disruptive Classroom Behaviour. Teenagers who lack discipline and have no intention to take their opportunity of being offered a good education should not be allowed to disrupt a school's activities. In another study of 74 school teachers from 4 schools in Kingston, Jamaica, 80% of the teachers reported that they often or occasionally used CP as a means of punishment (Pottinger & Nelson, 2004). Speak for yourself only, not the class. Adult classes can also be challenging in this sense. These are not desirable outcomes for any country and research should be undertaken to reduce such effects by eliminating the use of CP. Sneaking text messages from beneath the desk or having a laptop open to Facebook™ or other social media site during a lecture. “So you can beat a child without murdering them or abuse them. (Gershoff, 2002). «Letter of the Day | Ganja edibles pose great risk to children, Readers’ reactions Kyle Butler allegations of abuse and assault by his father, Letter of the Day | Jamaica should be open to digitalisation, Jamaica lost a community leader in Lloyd Hay, Readers’ reactions Appointment of shadow cabinet by Mark Golding. Manley must be turning in his grave over NHT raid, Talkback Thursday|Do not raid the trust, borrow the money, Digital Archives: Online editions 2006-Now. The Need To Still Rely Of Fear As A Tool For Control. Analysis across all 5 participants revealed 3 superordinate themes, the first being cultural norms, clouding judgement of what is acceptable or deemed abusive in CP and deservedness of CP with children. The method for this study was Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis, as described by Smith, Flowers & Larkin, (2009). For this study consent forms ( Appendix A) were given to 3 schools in the Kingston area of Jamaica, an inclusive school for mixed abilities, (ages 2-18), a basic school (ages 2-6) and a primary school (ages 6-12) . The aim of the study was to investigate the types and factors of disruptive behaviour in the ESL classroom whereby 420 participants International Journal of Intercultural Relations 25 (2001) 545–562 Child behavior and emotional problems in Jamaican classrooms:a multimethod study using It is possible that by virtue of their environment where rural Jamaican children have the opportunity (e.g., via more wide open space) to discharge their behavior in the environment (i.e., the form externalizing problems usually take), they may continue to behave similarly within the context of the classroom. (3) 5:218-222. Ronald Thwaites. (1)8:383-386. Teachers should know what disruptive behavior is to enable them to deal with problems occurred in their classroom or to take preventive actions to keep their students well-behaved during the class. They say that teaching is a fulfilling profession. The, 'you understand ? This phrase 'you understand' demonstrates how normal the content of her statement was to her and illustrates cultural norm well. However, it is clear from what she says that if some-one else believes that her children have been rude enough to warrant being flogged, then as long as they do it the right way, she has no problem with it and she would not consider it abuse. This commonality between subjects informed the master theme of Cultural norms as these norms make it difficult to define any acceptable consensus between CP and abuse, the first subordinate theme is Punishment or Abuse. ( Appendix C), the questions were formulated to be open-ended in order to allow participants to talk freely about their own personal experiences, feelings and perceptions, which was the goal of the interview and why IPA was chosen as the analytic tool. This paper compares the results of a qualitative investigation into disruptive behaviour in the higher education classroom in Italy with results from a previous study in Scotland. These cultural norms are pervasive and make judging acceptable levels difficult with comparison on a more global level, as evidenced by three of the teachers interviewed. No support from society in a survey of 11–12 year old children in Jamaica, 75% reported being beaten with an object, by teachers (Samms-Vaughan, Jackson, Ashley, & Lambert, 2000). And if a student had disciplinary issues, expulsion was always an option. Many persons now focus on the end result of the student being held down and cutting his hair rather than focus on the genesis of the problem. CP is associated with weakened parent–child connectedness, an increase in aggressive behaviour by young children and higher rates in mental-health problems, adolescent delinquency and abusive relationships. Exploration of the teachers experiences was an important consideration as decisions regarding educational policy are made by ministers and not teachers, to quote from one of the teachers in this study, known as Kelli, “ what I realise in Jamaica for the ministry of education, the persons that are stipulating the rules weren't persons that were in the classroom or are in the classroom. The were only 3 stipulations, to be eligible, participants must have been born and educated in Jamaica and must have been trained and qualified to teach by an official Teacher Training College in Jamaica. In situations like the recent forced haircut of a student at Vauxhall High, the school should be allowed to expel the student so that teachers and students can function in a proper school environment. This is confusing, does she mean that she will not beat a child to make them cry but you can beat her child close to 'murder' without it being abusive? Meanwhile, other behavior may result from deliberate actions taken by the student to cause classroom disruption. This is a qualitative study, interviews were semi-structured and each participant was interviewed separately. confirming its cultural normality. This study aimed to examine the conceptions of junior secondary school student misbehaviors in classroom, and to identify the most common, disruptive, and unacceptable student problem behaviors from teachers' perspective. Ringing phones, texting, playing on the Internet or instant messaging can be disruptive – even when the phone is set to vibrate. In many countries, this has become a major concern for educators. Child behavior and emotional problems in Jamaican classrooms: a multimethod study using direct observations and teacher reports for ages 6–11 Author links open overlay panel Michael Canute Lambert a Marieva Puig a Mikhail Lyubansky a George T Rowan a Martin Hill a Beth Milburn a Stanley D Hannah b Indeed, the single most common request for assistance from teachers is related to behavior and classroom management (Rose & Gallup, 2005). You“. With the growth of the interactive whiteboard and use of computer screens for teaching, many classrooms are … ', phrase at the end of her statement Is an expression used in Jamaica to confirm that both the listener and speaker are on the same page, it means more along the lines of, “you and I both know the way it works around here, don't we?”. Students’ disruptive behaviour in the classroom often causes disruption to the teaching and learning process. Review your expectations of classroom behavior, if necessary. Annita seems to imply that the parents who do not use physical punishment, who support and advocate their child’s rights over a teacher using corporal punishment, are bad parents and offers an example of what she believes is good parenting, her Mother's use of physical punishment to punish and correct which emphasises the strength of cultural influence and the cycle of inherited parenting styles. Alice sounds defeated trying to introduce alternatives to undesirable cultural norms and describes the rigidity that comes with an inherent accepted ideology, as almost imprisoning and impenetrable 'break them out of that thinking'. behavior and emotional problems among jamaican children and adolescents: an epidemiological survey of parent, teacher, and self-reports for ages 6–18 years Each participant had a separate transcript and were read and re-read, notations of interest were marked first and then emerging themes on each transcript, then commonalities and clustering of themes across all participants was identified, all related extracts were tabulated by page and line number on a summary table (Table 2) to produce the superordinate themes., however, not all extracts in the table were selected to support analysis. A list of 17 student problem behaviors was generated. Every single child in each group described experiencing harsh disciplinary measures, some were beaten with objects such as, belts, rulers, wooden boards and garden hose-pipes (Brown & Johnson, 2008). (1) 9:391-394. List of Disruptive Classroom Behavior Disruptive Behavior is when a student acts in a way that is difficult and this prevents them and other students in the class from studying.This type of behavior usually results in the teachers attention becoming focused on that child and preventing other classmates from receiving the attention they deserve. Many persons are blaming the teachers (including the Ministry of Education) to the point where we have all lost sight of the issue. Seek to understand the reason for the disruption. Letter of the Day | Have we got used to killings? This could be seen as cultural norms clouding judgement, she says she is not going to beat her own child but not because she does not agree with flogging her children but because she has not known them to be rude enough, thus far. Determining the underlying cause of a student's disruptive behavior involves a careful analysis of the behavior, as follows: Annita's opinions are clearly entrenched in cultural norms, guided by the experience of her own upbringing, as she talks about the parents who come to school to argue with the teacher when they have found out their child was physically punished. » Students’ misuse of technology in the classroom. The second subordinate theme is Deservedness, due to cultural norms being heavily influenced by Christianity there is strong support for the belief that children who behave in certain ways deserve physical punishment.. Alice talks about the affect of cultural norms of children being physically disciplined at home, “you try every medium of punishment and they don't move and that is probably because they're get beaten at home. Alarmingly, not much is being done to curb this behaviour. Respect is better, Fear is restrictive Minimizing Disruptive Behavior. The Ministry of Education is working to implement a Behaviour Modification Programme to address the challenges of anti-social behaviour by students in some educational institutions. The world doesn't always punish or reward people who behave in a particular manner. 1, pp. Confront the behavior, not the person. Again, the use of 'you understand? ' This was outlined in a Ministry paper tabled in the House of Representatives on Tuesday, May 15, by portfolio Minister, Hon. Try first talking to the child, then try isolating the child within the classroom. ( A lick is regarded as a harder type of slap in Jamaica) . Caribbean parents are known to be in the majority, authoritarian parents. Jamaica's level of physical punishment could be considered abusive by law in Western countries, such as, United Kingdom, where cultural norms are very different. Perhaps abuse is defined by pain, for Annita, she explains that when she hits a child's hand it does not hurt enough to cause the child to cry. Teachers are not dealing with normal students anymore and their jobs are becoming extremely frustrating and dangerous, as students have been reportedly taking offensive weapons to school. Dex echoed this entrenched opinion that rude children deserve to be beaten in this extract “ beating is not really for the sake of it, you understand? Teachers have been reporting growing levels of behaviour problems and disruptions in the classroom and the children who are at the highest risk of developing conduct problems tend to be taught by teachers who do not have strategies in place to deal with disruptive students ( Hutchings et al., 2012). No support from society Failed by the Ministry of Education Findings Discussion Appendix A Appendix B … Rummaging through a desk or backpack while class is in session creates unnecessary noise and should be discouraged. However, Kelli offers a concern for Jamaican teachers not often seen, since the 2005 prohibition on CP in school, teachers could face criminal prosecution and lose their job . Maybe I am from the old school where we had a caning system in place. While this information is still necessary, it is also qualitative understanding that is needed to explore the experience of Jamaican teachers in their classrooms, and to be immersed in their world to find out what experiences and circumstances still lead many teachers to still use CP as a means of classroom control. Concordia University. All Rights Reserved. Teachers have complaints against behavioural problems relating to students in classroom management. “I wasn’t taught anything pertaining to kids with ...erm...special needs, so when...when you come across them you treat them a way, you abuse them as if they are just rude all the time. Interested participants were asked to turn up at a local school to be interviewed. Th… Using Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis across all 5 participants revealed a strong influence of cultural norms that encourages the use of CP, a lack of support from the Jamaican Teachers Association and the Ministry of Education, ineffective teacher training courses and lack of support from the community causing these teachers to still rely on CP, for want of a better solutions. In analysing the problems affecting schools, Mrs. Abrikian identifies seven categories in the form of a pyramid, with classroom management skills, including rules and procedures, at the base. Poor behavior should get either no attention or the kind of attention that is so negative the student won't want it. THE EDITOR, Sir:Teachers have to spend valuable teaching time disciplining students, which robs well-behaved students of class time. Curbing students' disruptive behaviours in Jamaican secondary schools: Author: Ezenne, Austin: Abstract: In recent years, the media have been reporting an increase in students' disruptive behaviours in secondary schools in Jamaica. Excessive noises are distracting to other students and teachers. Teachers have to spend valuable teaching time disciplining students, which robs well-behaved students of class time. CP is common not only in the home context but also in schools. (1)5.194-197. She also talks about her own children and physical punishment in this next extract and offers her cultural norm. Cultural Norms – Clouding Judgement And Influencing Opinion SEVEN CATEGORIES. The word she chose to emphasis how severe a beating has to get before it is considered abuse, was 'murdering', this is could be considered an indication of her acceptable levels and what is deemed abusive. Since 2005 the Ministry of Education in Jamaica prohibited the use of corporal punishment (CP) in early childhood settings but there is research to show that children are still receiving physical punishment and teachers have been reported to still be using CP in schools. Twelve individual interviews with teachers were conducted. Students need to learn that there are natural rewards and certain consequences that come from certain types of behavior. We are told that disciplining students by way of caning is corporal punishment, and so we are seeing the manifestation of 'sparing the rod and spoiling the child'. … Annita makes some strong statements that seem to conflict but if we must understand the cultural norm at its foundation, that beating children is acceptable if they are rude, which is discussed in the subordinate theme, 'deservedness'. But I think sometimes some of the rude things that they have done really need the strap or some slapping, you understand? The first superordinate theme to emerge was the influence of cultural norms, all of the teachers in this study spoke about various experiences of some form of corporal punishment (CP) in school, or at home and admit to using minor forms of physical punishment themselves. These disruptive behaviours are many and varied and are causing serious concerns to all stakeholders in education. (Williams, Brown & Roopnarine, 2006). EXAMPLES OF DISRUPTIVE BEHAVIORS » Taking/making calls, texting, using smart phones for social media, etc. This toxic notion of masculinity is played out daily in the interaction our men have with women, as well as in male-to-male interaction. This qualitative interpretive phenomenological study uses semi-structured interviews from 5 Jamaican teachers to investigate their experiences of control in the classroom. Copyright © 2020 The Gleaner Company (Media) Limited. The classroom has become a battleground where a toxic and crude version of masculinity robs our male students of their full potential. Analysis Then, the effects of trauma on child behavior and how those experiences may be acted out in the classroom as disruptive behavior will be explored. They have no hands-on experience of the day-to-day things that teachers go through” 6:272-277. (2002). Having observed the negative impact disruptive behaviour has on the educational system and the society on a whole, the research aimed to determine how effective the use of token economy is in decreasing disruptive behaviour in the classroom. Disruptive behaviour can be presented by learners in a number of ways, ranging from wanting control and power in the classroom, being consistently late, talking when they shouldn’t be, arguing with the teacher unnecessarily, challenging the teacher on certain issues, ignoring instructions, … Accessed on March 30, 2019. 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