Measurement, assessment, and evaluation mean very different things, and yet most of my students were unable to adequately explain the differences. performance assessments: Assessments for which the test taker actually demonstrates the skills the test is intended to measure by doing tasks that require those skills. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. See alternate forms. In item response theory, the process of estimating the parameters of the item response function. In test linking, the degree of score comparability resulting from the application of a linking procedure varies along a continuum that depends on the type of linking conducted. The analysis indicates the generalizability of scores beyond the specific sample of items, persons, and observational conditions that were studied. If multiple interpretations of a test score for different uses are intended, validity evidence for each interpretation is needed. ii EFFECTIVE STUDENT ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION IN THE CLASSROOM The Working Committee on the Efﬁ cacy of Teacher Preparation Programs and Beginning Teachers’ Opportunities for Professional Growth (Working Committee) duly considered suggestions arising from the Colloquium and has made every … test development: The process through which a test is planned, constructed, evaluated, and modified, including consideration of content, format, administration, scoring, item properties, scaling, and technical quality for its intended purpose. summative assessment: The assessment of a test taker’s knowledge and skills typically carried out at the completion of a program of learning, such as the end of an instructional unit. Foot - A foot is a unit of length. completed, to inform an interpretation, decision, or action, based, in part, upon test scores. Grant Wiggins . A. prompt/item prompt/writing prompt: The question, stimulus, or instructions that elicit a test taker’s response. *Meta-evaluation: A systematic and objective assessment that aggregates findings and recommendations from a series of evaluations. In an educational context, the process of observing learning; describing, collecting, recording, scoring, and interpreting information about a student's or one's own learning. content standard: In educational assessment, a statement of content and skills that students are expected to learn in a subject matter area often at a particular grade or at the completion of a particular level of schooling. English language learner: An individual who is not yet proficient in English, including an individual whose first language is not English and a language minority individual just beginning to learn English, as well as an individual who has developed considerable proficiency in English. See Internal consistency reliability. operational use: The actual use of a test, after initial test development has been. moderation: A process of relating scores on different tests so that scores have the same relative meaning (e.g., using a separate test that is administered to all test takers). personality inventory: An inventory that measures one or more characteristics that are regarded generally as psychological attributes or interpersonal tendencies. The IEC Glossary is a compilation of electrotechnical terminology in English and French extracted from the "Terms and Definitions" clause of IEC publications (those issued since 2002). Academic appeal Academic appeals are only concerned with Assessment Board decisions and … job analysis: The investigation of positions or job classes to obtain information about job duties and tasks, responsibilities, necessary worker characteristics (e.g. response bias: A test taker's tendency to respond in a particular way or style to items on a test (e.g., acquiesce, choice of socially desirable options , choice of 'true' on a true-false test) that yields systematic, construct-irrelevant error in test scores. Contrast with analytic scoring. See sensitivity and specificity. See bias. Portfolios: Collections of multiple student work samples usually compiled over time and rated using rubrics. constructed-response items/tasks/exercises: An exercise or task for which test takers must create their own responses or products rather than choose a response from an enumerated set. criterion domain: The construct domain of a variable that is used as a criterion. school district: A local education agency administered by a public board of education or other public authority within a State that oversees public elementary or secondary schools in a political subdivision of a State. (See benchmark assessments.). Referred to as DTF. Posted on January 25, 2013 by loidabmanuel330. retesting: A repeat administration of a test; either the same test or an alternate form, sometimes with additional training or education between administrations. knowledge, skills, and abilities), working conditions, and/or other aspects of the work. psychological testing: The use of tests or inventories to assess particular psychological characteristics of an individual. specificity: In classification, diagnosis, and selection, the proportion of cases assessed or predicted not to meet the criteria which in truth do not meet the criteria. from TC 37, 77, 86 and CISPR). informed consent: The agreement of a person, or that person's legal representative, for some procedure to be performed on or by the individual, such as taking a test or completing a questionnaire. See error of measurement. Domain/content sampling: The process of selecting test items, in a systematic way, to represent the total set of items measuring a domain. Also called Cronbach's alpha and, for dichotomous items, KR 20. test user: The person(s) or entity responsible for the choice and administration of a test, for the interpretation of test scores produced in a given context, and for any decisions or actions that are based, in part, on test scores. See alternate forms. According to educator and author, Graham Nuthall, in his book The Hidden Lives of Learners, "In most of the classrooms we have studied, each student already knows about 40-50% of what the teacher is teaching." See sample. Assessment The Latin root assidere means to sit beside. alternate assessments or alternate tests: Used to evaluate the performance of students in educational setting who are unable to participate in standardized accountability assessments even with accommodations. A measure of the consistency of test scores, also a measure of internal consistency. Glossary of Assessment Terms. internal consistency coefficient: An index of the reliability of test scores derived from the statistical interrelationships among item responses or scores on separate parts of a test. construct underrepresentation: The extent to which a test fails to capture important aspects of the construct domain that the test is intended to measure resulting in test scores that do not fully represent that construct. equating: a process for relating scores on alternate forms of a test so that they have essentially the same meaning. See alternate forms, equating, calibration, moderation, projection, and vertical scaling. percentile: The score on a test below which a given percentage of scores for a specified population occurs. screening test: A test that is used to make broad categorizations of test takers as a first step in selection decisions or diagnostic processes. achievement test: A test to measure the extent of knowledge or skill attained by a test taker in a content domain in which the test taker has received instruction. A test that is fair minimizes the construct irrelevant variance associated with individual characteristics and testing contexts that otherwise would compromise the validity of scores for some individuals. gain score: In testing, the difference between two scores obtained by a test taker on the same test or two equated tests taken on different occasions, often before and after some treatment. individualized education program (IEP): A document that delineates special education services for a special-needs student and that includes any adaptations that are required in the regular classroom or for assessments and any additional special programs or services. Why Are Measurement, Assessment and Evaluation Important in Education? process with the selection of each entity independent of the selection of other entities. See stability. The scores may be raw or standardized. There are 76 terms below, including many question types. See accommodations and modifications. See user's guide and technical manual. local norms: Norms by which test scores are referred to a specific, limited, reference population of particular interest to the test user (e.g., locale, organization, or institution); local norms are not intended to be representative of populations beyond that limited setting. Such evidence may address issues such as the fidelity of test content to performance in the domain in question and the degree to which test content representatively samples a domain such as a course curriculum or job. interpreter: Someone who facilitates cross-cultural communication by converting concepts from one language to another (including sign language). test publisher: An entity, individual, organization, or agency that produces and or distributes a test. inventory: A questionnaire or checklist that elicits information about an individual's personal opinions, interests, attitudes, preferences, personality characteristics, motivations, or typical reactions to situations and problems. meta-analysis: A statistical method of research in which the results from independent, comparable studies are combined to determine the size of an overall effect or the degree of relationship between two variables. Stakeholders might include accreditation agencies, state government, or trustees. concordance: In linking test scores for tests that measure similar constructs, the process of relating a score on one test to a score on another, so that the scores have the same relative meaning for a group of test takers. composite score: A score that combines several scores according to a specified formula. generalizability theory: Methodological framework for evaluating reliability/precision in which various sources error variance are estimated through the application of the statistical techniques of analysis of variance. See sensitivity and specificity. technical manual: A publication prepared by test developers and publishers to provide technical and psychometric information about a test. See equivalent forms, parallel forms. The design of a portfolio is dependent upon how the scoring results are going to be used. See standard error of measurement, systematic error, random error and true score. Performance criteria help assessors maintain objectivity and provide students with important information about expectations. item pool/item bank: The collection or set of items from which a test or test scale's items are selected during test development, or the total set of items from which a particular subset is selected for a test taker during adaptive testing. SCASS Arts Assessment Project Glossary of Assessment Terms . the important role of teachers’ professional judgment in assessment for student learning. Typical units include pounds, ounces, and tons. So, in keeping with the ADPRIMA approach to explaining things in as straightforward and meaningful a way as possible, here are what I think are useful descriptions of these three fundamental terms. 2. 2. restriction of range or variability: Reduction in the observed score variance of a test-taker sample, compared to the variance of the entire test taker-population, as a consequence of constraints on the process of sampling test takers. Affective Domain Outcomes of education involving feelings more than understanding; likes, pleasures ideals and/or values. percentile rank: The percentage of scores in a specified score distribution that are below a given score. automated scoring: A procedure by which constructed response items are scored by computer using a rules-based approach. Glossary of Terms on Assessment. test format/mode: The manner in which the test content is presented to the test taker, such as in paper-and-pencil, via a computer terminal, through the internet, or verbally by an examiner. scoring rubric: The established criteria, including rules, principles, and illustrations, used in scoring constructed responses to individual tasks and clusters of tasks. The absence of a sign infers both signs (±). Contrast with high-stakes test. weighted scores/scoring: A method of scoring a test in which a number of points is awarded for a correct (or diagnostically relevant) response. Short-answer items require a few words or a number as an answer, whereas extended-response items require at least a few sentences and may include diagrams, mathematical proofs, essays, problem solutions such as network repairs on other work products. Usually this is the shorter side while the length is the longer side. false negative: An error of classification, diagnosis, or selection in which an individual does not meet the standard based on the assessment for inclusion in a particular group but in truth does (or would) meet the standard. Assessment Tool:Instrument used to measure the characteristic or outcome of interest. vertical scaling: In test linking, the process of relating scores on tests that measure the same construct but differ in difficulty, typically used with achievement and ability tests with content or difficulty that spans a variety of grade or age levels. 2. portfolio: In assessment, a systematic collection of educational or work products that have been compiled or accumulated over time, according to a specific set of principles or rules. In scoring constructed responses tasks, procedures used during training and scoring to achieve a desired level of scorer agreement. selection: The acceptance or rejection of applicants for a particular educational or employment opportunity. test manual: A publication prepared by test developers and publishers to provide information on test administration, scoring, and interpretation and to provide selected technical data on test characteristics. The probability of an interactive response to a test item. For an extended assessment glossary, see Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC). predictive validity evidence: Evidence indicating how accurately test data collected at one time can predict criterion scores that are obtained at a later time. differential test functioning: Differential performance at the test or dimension level indicating that individuals from different groups who have the same standing on the characteristic assessed by a test do not have the same expected test score. top-down selection: Selecting applicants on the basis of rank ordered test score from highest to lowest. adaptation/ test adaptation: 1. formative assessment: An assessment process used by teachers and students during instruction that provides feedback to adjust ongoing teaching and learning with the goals of improving students' achievement of intended instructional outcomes. See random sample and stratified random sample. term: Results Framework. Measuring healthy days: Population assessment of health-related quality of life. Organization. It is usually measured in terms of inaccuracy and expressed as accuracy. It is a number or quantity, which defines the limit that errors will not exceed, when the device is used under reference operating conditions. predictive bias: The systematic under- or over-prediction of criterion performance for people belonging to groups differentiated by characteristics not relevant to the criterion performance. EXPLORE THE SEARCHABLE ASSESSMENT GLOSSARY. classification accuracy: Degree to which the assignment of test takers to specific categories is accurate; the degree to which false positive and false negative classifications are avoided. See generalizability theory, classical test theory, precision of measurement. accessible/accessibility: Degree to which the items or tasks on a test enable as many test takers as possible to demonstrate their standing on the target construct without being impeded by characteristics of the item that are irrelevant to the construct being measured. test information function: A mathematical function relating each level of an ability or latent trait, as defined under item response theory (IRT), to the reciprocal of the corresponding conditional measurement error variance. The reference population may be defined in terms of test taker age, grade, or clinical status at time of testing or other characteristics. classical test theory: A psychometric theory based on the view that an individual's observed score on a test is the sum of a true score component for the test taker and an independent random error component. In some cases terms and definitions have also been collected from earlier publications (e.g. speededness: The extent to which test takers’ scores are dependent upon the rate at which work is performed as well as the correctness of the responses. validation: The process through which the validity of the proposed interpretation of test scores for their intended uses is investigated. false positive: An error of classification, diagnosis, or selection in which an individual meets the standard based on the assessment for inclusion in a particular group but in truth does not (or would not) meet the standard. Glossary of assessment terms A guide to help you understand the terms used in the assessment of taught programmes. test modification: Changes made in the content, format, and/or administration procedure of a test to increase the accessibility of the test for test takers who are unable to take the original test under standard testing conditions. Age Norms--values representing typical or average performance of people of age groups. performance standards: Descriptions of levels of knowledge and skill acquisition contained in content standards, as articulated through performance level labels (e.g., “basic”, “proficient”, “advanced”), statements of what test takers at different performance levels know and can do, and cut scores or ranges of scores on the scale of an assessment that differentiate levels of performance. Assessment is the systematic, reported evaluation of student outcomes for demonstrating effectiveness and improving offerings.. Capstone Course is an upper division class designed to help students integrate their knowledge. unidimensional: A test that measures only one dimension or only one latent variable. Common Assessment Terms Assessment for Accountability . 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