Specimens of Kiwa tyleri sp. Affiliation nov. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0127621.g003. A) lateral view; B) dorsal view; C) frontal view; D) ventral view, sternal plastron; E) dorsal view. Low polar temperatures are known to pose thermal challenges to most reptant decapod crustaceans (broadly: crabs and lobsters) in the Southern Ocean. Hydrothermal vents in the Southern Ocean are the physiologically most isolated chemosynthetic environments known. These animals have been given the scientific name Kiwa hirsuta. , Phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene and a range of other anomuran crustaceans, using Bayesian inference, places this species from the East Scotia Ridge as a sister taxon to Kiwa hirsuta, with a sequence divergence from this species of 6.45%, which is consistent for within-genus divergence in squat lobsters. A) antenna; B) antennule; C) first maxilliped; D) second maxilliped; E) third maxilliped; F) pereiopod 5; G) holotype, female (NHMUK 2015.2791); H) lateral view; scale bars: 1mm (A-F); 0.5 cm (G,H). The "Hoff crab" (Kiwa tyleri) is a species of deep-sea squat lobster in the family Kiwaidae, which lives on hydrothermal vents near Antarctica. Flagellum less than half as long as carapace (Fig 5A). Indeed, this hypothesised evolutionary transition may be reflected in changes in the distribution and density of bacteriophoran (plumose) setae, indicating a possible adaptive trend in functional morphology towards greater specialisation for vent-endemic life. The "Hoff crab" (Kiwa tyleri) is a species of deep-sea squat lobster in the family Kiwaidae, which lives on hydrothermal vents near Antarctica. Kiwa … Brooding females found away from vent chimneys often present a deteriorate state in carapace health , including highly worn (brown) setae (Fig 8C and 8D). In a paradoxical sentence, I will now state that, despite living near Antarctica, yeti crabs cannot survive will in cold water.  The 2010 expedition to explore hydrothermal vents on the East Scotia Ridge was the second of three expeditions to the Southern Ocean by the UK led research consortium, ChEsSo (Chemosynthetic Ecosystems of the Southern Ocean). Live Crabs. For sampling and locations see methods, and for further information: Table 1 in .  2012]; the E9 site is strongly influenced by the Weddell-Scotia Confluence, the Circumpolar Deep Water and the Weddell Sea Deep Water [20–22]. Both vent fields consist of active and inactive hydrothermal structures likely associated with fissures parallel to the ridge axis . No, Is the Subject Area "New species reports" applicable to this article? They gave the crab the proper name of Kiwa hirsuta. This approach provides new perspectives for the future studies of Crustacea that are heavily covered in setae, and which may present hidden morphological characters of potential significance in the reconstruction of their evolutionary history, e.g. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. on carapace; C) paratype, male (NHMUK 2015.2793) frontal view; D) paratype, male (NHMUK 2015.2793) dorsal view. Constrained by the low, stable temperatures prevailing in the Southern Ocean, K. tyleri is limited to a three-dimensional thermal envelope surrounding vent chimneys (for discussion see ). Over the course of six sampling dives, Thatje and his team’s ROV (remotely operated vehicle) documented the Antarctic Yeti crabs in extremely high density in the harsh hydrothermal vent … In 2005, a new species of crab, Kiwa hirsuta, was discovered off the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge in the South Pacific Ocean. The yeti crab (Kiwa hirsuta), an unusual, hairy crab with no eyes, was discovered in 2005 on a hydrothermal vent near Easter Island. Mar 11, 2012 - mass of anomuran crab Kiwa around deep-sea hydrothermal vent. This study was undertaken under the permit S3-3/2009 issued by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, London to section 3 of the Antarctic Act 1994. Radiation of the Kiwaidae has been hypothesised as relatively recent, with a suggested divergence between the Pacific and non-Pacific lineages occurring in the Miocene, approximately 13.4–25.0 million years ago (Ma), subsequent to the opening of the Drake Passage and coincident with an important transition in Southern Ocean cooling, resulting in a climate close to as seen today [7,12]. Engineering Sciences, μ-VIS CT Imaging Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ, United Kingdom, Affiliation No, PLOS is a nonprofit 501(c)(3) corporation, #C2354500, based in San Francisco, California, US, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0127621, https://www.bodc.ac.uk/data/information_and_inventories/cruise_inventory/report/10593. Kiwa puravida live around cold seeps off Costa Rica, and Kiwa hirsuta can be found on the periphery of hydrothermal vents on the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge in the southeastern Pacific Ocean. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0127621.g004. Three ribosomal gene regions, 16S, 18S, 28S and one protein-coding gene, Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I (COI) were PCR amplified using one or more sets of primers (Table 1). mass of anomuran crab Kiwa around deep-sea hydrothermal vent. Uropods well developed; with smooth margins of outer and inner rami fringed with numerous plumose setae; basal segment short, wider than long. National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, European Way, Southampton, SO14 3ZH, United Kingdom, Affiliation Kiwa tyleri sp. Carapace length (CL) was measured from the base of the rostrum to the postero-lateral margin of the carapace. Larvae are negatively buoyant—likely of demersal (close to seafloor) living—and, following hatching, are exposed to the low polar temperatures of the Southern Ocean, implying slow development and extended period of larval developmental time . Is the Subject Area "Hydrothermal vents" applicable to this article? https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0127621.g005. Back in 2005, three researchers described and named a very unusual crab from a hydrothermal vent in the Indian Ocean ().. (2015). Proximal margins of segments (ischium to carpus) lined with strong spines, enlarged in males, excluding propodus/chela (Fig 4C and 4D); palm broadened distally; dactylus oval in shape, with proximal surface convex (spoon-like), with apparent smooth cutting edge (Fig 6C). Yes It is known for the hair-like covering on its arms, which it uses to capture chemobacteria from hydrothermal vents to eat. E2 and E9 vent sites are widely covered in mats of bacteria (Fig 2D, see also [5,6]), and specialization in setae types may suggest that K. tyleri can harbour/farm epibiotic bacteria, as well as swipe-up bacteria from chimney surfaces. Evidence for abbreviated and lecithotrophic larval development in the yeti crab Kiwa tyleri from hydrothermal vents of the East Scotia Ridge, Southern Ocean. The three known species of Kiwaidae, including K. tyleri described herein, are of deep-sea occurrence (1000 to 2400 m), and are clearly associated with chemosynthetic environments. Segments in pereopods of K. tyleri are of oval shape, whereas congeners show laterally flattened segments; again, a likely adaptation to contrasting small-scale habitat topography. No, Is the Subject Area "Phylogenetic analysis" applicable to this article? Cardiac region clearly visible, separated from branchial regions by shallow grooves. Saved from upload.wikimedia.org. Antennule with slender, proximally inflated basal segment, articles 2 and 3 slender, basal segment slightly longer than article 2 and subequal to article 3. The method used allowed for the study of morphological features, without any invasive method applied to type material, and by discounting any setation in the specimens. Further type material is deposited in museum collections (Table 3). The genus is placed in its own family, Kiwaidae, in the superfamily Chirostyloidea. The galatheid crab Shinkaia crosnieri forms dense colonies in the deep-sea hydrothermal systems of the Okinawa Trough, where the hydrothermal fluids and mixing zones in habitats are enriched by gaseous components, such as carbon dioxide and methane (Kawagucci et al., 2011, Watsuji et al., 2010). Principally, their inability to down regulate the high concentration of magnesium (Mg2+) in their blood (haemolymph) below that of sea-water results in a paralysis-like condition in combination with low polar (<1°C) temperatures (for review see [15,16]). For the large male (NHMUK 2015.2792), a peak tube voltage of 80kV together with a current of 300μA and 1mm of aluminium filtration was used with an exposure time of 1 second, 24dB analogue gain, and the specimen positioned to obtain a voxel size of 60μm. A species of Kiwa, visually resembling K. tyleri, has been reported from the Southwest Indian Ridge, in close proximity to active vents [7,11]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0127621.g006. Introduction. Wrote the paper: ST. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click Because of these environmental conditions, connectivity of populations inhabiting vent sites in the Southern Ocean may be even more constrained than elsewhere in the oceans [7,8]. Yes The Bayesian inference phylogenetic tree (Fig 3) using concatenated 16S and 18S fragments gave strong node support (posterior probability of 1.0) for the monophyly of K. hirsuta and Kiwa tyleri sp. The LSID for this publication is: urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:E94A8419-D17A-48A5-A3F1-565DA3E3AB45. Kiwa tyleri lives in the coldest waters of any Yeti crab species in the Southern Ocean. Another important ecological adaptation to life on vent chimneys is the presence of a well developed spine on the propodus of pereopods 2 to 4, combined with an overall much stouter and compact body form, including robust and proportionally shorter pereopods (2 to 4). Sternites 2–5, with anterior margin produced to tooth, and with lesser tooth on posterior margin; anterior midline grooved; sternite 6 reduced (Figs 6E, 6F and 7D); sternal plastron densely covered with fields of setae (Fig 8A–8D). This hairy-chested crab, colloquially known as the ‘Hoff’ crab, carries bacteria on its body, which gives it a furry appearance. They gave the crab the proper name of Kiwa hirsuta. A) type material, female, dorsal view; B) type material, male, dorsal view; note presence of single specimen of limpet (Lepetodrillus sp.) The scans were reconstructed into a 3D volume using a filtered back reconstruction algorithm in CT Pro and CT Agent (Nikon Metrology, UK), and then the volume files were visualized and analysed using VG Studio Max 2.1 (Volume Graphics, GmbH). These names come from the hairy and bristly appearance, that resembles that of the legendary snow monster Yeti. (2012). Whether or not Southern Ocean vents represent bottlenecks for the distribution and radiation of taxa throughout this polar environment is one of the key questions in the study of global vent biogeography . Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Kiwa tyleri belongs to an enigmatic group of squat lobsters, known as Kiwaidae, that thrive in the hot waters surrounding the geothermally heated hydrothermal vents… https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0127621.t001, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0127621.t002. Both sites are surrounded by the cold stable waters of the Southern Ocean, with temperatures of ~0.0 and -1.3°C at E2 and E9 vent sites, respectively [Rogers et al. So far, only one species of squat lobster of the cosmopolitan genus Munidopsis has been reported from the deep-sea of the Bellingshausen Sea, to the west of the Antarctic Peninsula . It has been hypothesised that these sulfur-oxidising bacteria, which fix carbon from the water by oxidising sulfides in the hydrothermal fluid, are a significant source of nutrition to the crabs. In some areas, K. tyleri can reach over 4,000 individuals in area less than the size of a medium-sized coffee table. PLoS ONE 10(6): For the paratype male (NHMUK 2015.2793) and holotype female (NHMUK 2015.2791) a peak tube voltage of 80kV together with a current of 100μA without filtration was used with an exposure time of 2 seconds, 24dB analogue gain, and the specimen positioned to obtain a voxel size of 44μm. The PCR cycling protocol was an initial denaturation at 96°C for 5 minutes, followed by 35 cycles of 96°C for 30 seconds, 55°C for 30 seconds, 72°C for 1 min, and a final extension of 5 min at 72°C. October 2018; Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 99(4):e01444; DOI: 10.1002/bes2.1444 Evidence for abbreviated and lecithotrophic larval development in the yeti crab Kiwa tyleri from hydrothermal vents of the East Scotia Ridge, Southern Ocean. The K2P COI distance matrix revealing 0–1% divergences amongst the seven ESR kiwaids analysed, and distances of 9.6–13% between these individuals and the other two described kiwaid species (K. hirsuta, K. puravida) [9,10] are consistent with intra and interspecific diversity respectively within Decapoda . Thatje S, Marsh L, Roterman CN, Mavrogordato MN, Linse K, 2015, "The discovery of new deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities in the Southern Ocean and implications for biogeography", "ChEsSo – Exploration for vents south of the Polar Front", "Dancing for food in the deep sea: bacterial farming by a new species of yeti crab", "A new squat lobster family of Galatheoidea (Crustacea, Decapoda, Anomura) from the hydrothermal vents of the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge", "Near icy waters, marine life gets by swimmingly", "New crab with hairy chest dubbed "The Hoff, "Weird & wild: 5 weirdest Antarctic species", "The Hoff, a yeti crab with a very hairy chest, discovered in deep sea vent", "David Hasselhoff interview: 'failure usually works for me, Ghostly yeti crab swarms discovered near Antarctica, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hoff_crab&oldid=915655116, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Dorsal view of carapace showing distinctive markings, This page was last edited on 14 September 2019, at 14:48. Carapace, excluding rostrum, longer than broad; lateral borders granulated; dorsal surface of carapace smooth, without setae. Kiwa tyleri is now the third such "yeti crab", as this type of animal is often called, to be described in the scientific literature. Here, we describe Kiwa tyleri sp. Body suppressed, symmetrical, calcified. The animals reminded their discoverers of the Yeti, or the Abominable Snowman. In search of the new yeti, in 2010 scientists piloted a remotely operated vehicle to the hydrothermal vents of East Scotia Ridge, more than 8,500 feet (2,600 meters) deep. Spatial segregation by size class was observed, and the size of males to females varied significantly between both vent sites [5,6]. Any morphological measurements were taken to the nearest 0.1mm. Kiwa tylerihas been shown to present differential life history adaptations in response to this contrasting thermal environment. On pereopod 1 to 4; dense fields of setae distributed along ventral portions, from ischium to merus (Fig 8A–8D). The ecology and life history of this species can be regarded as well reported [1,5,6,9,13,14]. (5) The crab not only belongs to a new genus Kiwa but also a totally new family of crabs named Kiwaidae. Sternal plastron of four sub-divisions, one for each pair of pereopods 2–4. This physiological constraint on activity has often been used to explain the low diversity of decapods found in the Southern Ocean [17,18]. Morphological adaptations specific to life in warm-eurythermal waters, as found on – or in close proximity of – vent chimneys, are discussed in comparison with adaptations seen in the other two known members of the family (K. hirsuta, K. puravida), which show a preference for low temperature chemosynthetic environments. , Unlike Kiwa hirsuta and Kiwa puravida, which are notable for having a dense covering of setae on their elongated chelae, this species has shorter chelae, with most of the setae concentrated instead on the ventral surface of the crab. Basal article unarmed; article 2 with strong lateral projection, dentate on distal portion, with additional distoventral spine; article 3 with distomesial spine; article 4 with two distomesial spines (dorsal and ventral). Ocean and Earth Science, University of Southampton, European Way, Southampton, SO14 3ZH, United Kingdom, Affiliation Newly discovered Kiwa tyleri lives in the dark about 2,500 meters below the surface of the Southern Ocean around Antarctica, researchers in England report 1 June 24 in PLOSONE. Yes All sequences are deposited on GenBank, Accession numbers (Table 2). . Adaptations to Hydrothermal Vent Life in Kiwa tyleri, a New Species of Yeti Crab from the East Scotia Ridge, Antarctica. Pereopods 2–4 (Figs 4A, 4B, 6A–6C, 6G and 6H); ambulatory legs similar; of stout segments and oval in shape. The electronic edition of this article conforms to the requirements of the amended International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, and hence the new names contained herein are available under that Code from the electronic edition of this article. K. tyleri's stout body and spiny legs help it cling to the walls of hydrothermal vents, where it seeks a narrow comfort zone between superheated vent water and subzero seawater. Topologies were sampled every 100 generations and the first 25% were discarded as ‘burn in’. . An enigmatic squat lobster of the family of yeti crabs, Kiwa tyleri sp. They feed mainly on the abundant chemotrophic bacteria living in their ecosystem. This "Yeti Crab" has not been previously encountered in 30 + years of hydrothermal vent exploration. Type material used herein is deposited in the Crustacea collection of the National History Museum, London, United Kingdom (NHMUK) under individual collection codes and station data (see Description). They have the longest hairs of the yeti crab species known so far, especially on their legs and claws. This molecular evidence supports an inclusion of Kiwa tyleri within the genus Kiwa.  proposed that seeps could serve as dispersal stepping-stones between vents for kiwaids, and Roterman et al. nov., the first species of yeti crab known from the Southern Ocean. Strong node support (posterior probability of 1.0) is evident for the monophyly of K. hirsuta and Kiwa tyleri sp. Hydrothermal vent sites (E2, E9) as indicated. phylogenetic positioning within clades of species. First maxilliped with large bilobate exopod; distal exopod of two segments, terminal segment elongate; endopod of rounded lobe, fringed with long plumose setae (Fig 5C). Maxilla with slender endopod, with several simple distal setae; distal endite bilobate, proximal lobe larger than distal; proximal endite bilobate; both endites with numerous simple and plumose setae; scaphognathite large and flattened, margins with numerous single and plumose setae. A species of Kiwa, visually resembling K. tyleri, has been reported from the Southwest Indian Ridge, in close proximity to active vents [7,11]. Interestingly, these crabs have been known to rhythmically wave their appendages in an effort to improve the flow of methane and hydrogen sulfide from the vents. PCR and sequencing yielded a 512 bp fragment of 16S, a 598 bp fragment of 18S, a 1088 bp fragment of 28S and a 680 bp fragment of COI for individuals from both vent locations on the East Scotia Ridge (E2 and E9). Here is a real life Yeti! The genus is placed in its own family, Kiwaidae, in the superfamily Chirostyloidea. At the two ESR vents (E2 and E9, Fig 1), Kiwa tyleri occurs in high densities at the base and lower parts of vent edifices (Fig 2), and can exceed 700 individuals m-2. At this site, a new anomuran species which belongs to the genus Kiwa known as 'yeti crabs' was found. It has reduced pigment, meaning it is almost completely white in color, and is thought to be blind. 2015;1: 109–116. Citation: Thatje S, Marsh L, Roterman CN, Mavrogordato MN, Linse K (2015) Adaptations to Hydrothermal Vent Life in Kiwa tyleri, a New Species of Yeti Crab from the East Scotia Ridge, Antarctica. This published work and the nomenclatural acts it contains have been registered in ZooBank, the online registration system for the ICZN. There can be as many as 700 Yeti crabs in just a square meter in a hydrothermal vent. nov., the first species of yeti crab known from the Southern Ocean.Kiwa tyleri belongs to the family Kiwaidae and is the visually dominant macrofauna of two known vent sites situated on the northern and southern segments of the East Scotia Ridge (ESR). Another angle… because he’s beautiful! A) female, ventral view; B) female, ventral view, magnification of base of pereopod 4, with rows of distinct (white/brown) setae (black arrows); C) female, ventral view; D) magnification of base of pereopod 4, with worn setae (black arrow); E) type material, male, lateral view of chela, with epibiotic bacteria (black arrow). For a more detailed examination of the evolutionary relationships amongst members of this family, we refer to detailed phylogenetic analysis presented by Roterman et al. Kiwa tyleri belongs to the family Kiwaidae and is the visually dominant macrofauna of two known vent sites situated on the northern and southern segments of the East Scotia Ridge (ESR). Pairwise COI Kimura two-parameter (K2P) genetic distances between the seven individuals and also the two presently described kiwaids, K. hirsuta (COI sequence courtesy of Dr W. Joe Jones) and K. puravida (Genbank accession #JN383822) were calculated using MEGA 5.0.  Other marine fauna, such as sea anemones (family Actinostolidae), gastropods Gigantopelta chessoia, a species of stalked barnacle (most likely of the genus Vulcanolepas), a pycnogonid close to the genus Sericosura, and a predatory seven armed starfish can be found living together with this species. Hydrothermal vents in the Southern Ocean are the physiologically most isolated chemosynthetic environments known. e0127621.  The crustacean was given its English nickname in 2010 by UK deep-sea scientists aboard the RRS James Cook, owing to resemblance between its dense covering of setae on the ventral surface of the exoskeleton and the hairy chest of the actor David Hasselhoff. Zoobank, the Yeti crab ( Kiwa hirsuta covered with tubercular processes on ischium,,!, posterior margin symmetrically bilobed than half as long as wide, posterior margin bilobed!: Table 1 in [ 6 ] decapods found in the Southern Ocean are the most! 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2020 kiwa crab hydrothermal vents